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Wednesday, October 14, 2015

Draper Led Team to Demonstrate Safer, Smarter UAVS

Technology Could Help Soldiers and First Responders

CAMBRIDGE, MA – The mission of clearing buildings remains among the most dangerous operations performed by military teams and first responders. Personnel searching for hidden combatants or trapped victims must move quickly through hazardous and unfamiliar spaces, facing life-or-death situations around each corner. A smart robotic scout could help perform rapid interior reconnaissance while search teams safely monitor progress from the outside, but walls, doors, and cluttered spaces make it difficult for operators to pilot the vehicles indoors.

Towards this vision, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) awarded contracts to Draper and two other industry teams to create unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that autonomously sense and maneuver through unknown environments without external communications or GPS under the Fast Lightweight Autonomy (FLA) program. The program seeks UAVs that weigh less than three kilograms, and can fly at speeds up to 65 feet per second.

Under its $3.4 million FLA contract, the Draper team will develop and implement advanced perception and autonomy algorithms to be hosted on a common flight platform. The team will employ unique sensor and algorithm configurations, with time-trials and performance evaluations conducted in indoor/outdoor venues. Inspired by nature’s winged predators, the Draper team, which includes the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), leverages expertise in autonomous path planning, machine vision, GPS-denied navigation, and dynamic flight controls. 

“Developing a system that can recognize and respond to its environment quickly while flying nearly 45 miles per hour in a real world environment presents considerable challenges,” said Steve Paschall, Draper’s FLA technical director. “Our sensing and algorithm configurations must enable the vehicle to demonstrate agile maneuvering, high reliability, and safety, as any errors at high speed could be catastrophic. Such high speeds dictate that the vehicle handle planning and control with low-latency sensing and processing.”

The MIT research, led by professor Nick Roy, FLA principal investigator, will enable perception at varying time- and length-scales, performs computationally efficient trajectory generation and avoidance maneuvers, and allow for accurate decision-making and control through formal performance and safety guarantees.

This approach promises rapid and safe flight in unknown environments and the software developed will eventually be released as open source to further advance the state-of-the-art in UAV autonomy.

Capabilities Used
Positioning, Navigation & Timing (PNT)

Draper develops novel PN&T solutions by combining precision instrumentation, advanced hardware technology, comprehensive algorithm and software development skills, and unique infrastructure and test resources to deploy system solutions. The scope of these efforts generally focuses on guidance, navigation, and control GN&C-related needs, ranging from highly accurate, inertial solutions for (ICBMs) and inertial/stellar solutions for SLBMs, to integrated Inertial Navigation System(INS)/GPS solutions for gun-fired munitions, to multisensor configurations for soldier navigation in GPS-challenged environments. Emerging technologies under development that leverage and advance commercial technology offerings include celestial navigation (compact star cameras), inertial navigation (MEMS, cold atom sensors), precision time transfer (precision optics, chip-scale atomic clocks) and vision-based navigation (cell phone cameras, combinatorial signal processing algorithms).

Autonomous Systems

Draper combines mission planning, PN&T, situational awareness, and novel GN&C designs to develop and deploy autonomous platforms for ground, air, sea and undersea needs. These systems range in complexity from human-in-the-loop to systems that operate without any human intervention. The design of these systems generally involves decomposing the mission needs into sets of scenarios that result in trade studies that lead to an optimized solution with key performance requirements.  Draper continues to advance the field of autonomy through research in the areas of mission planning, sensing and perception, mobility, learning, real-time performance evaluation and human trust in autonomous systems.

Precision Instrumentation

Draper develops precision instrumentation systems that exceed the state-of-the-art in key parameters (input range, accuracy, stability, bandwidth, ruggedness, etc.) that are designed specifically to operate in our sponsor’s most challenging environments (high shock, high temperature, radiation, etc.).  As a recognized leader in the development and application of precision instrumentation solutions for platforms ranging from missiles to people to micro-Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Draper finds or develops state-of-the-art components (gyros, accelerometers, magnetometers, precision clocks, optical systems, etc.) that meet the demanding size, weight, power and cost needs of our sponsors and applies extensive system design capabilities consisting of modeling, mechanical and electrical design, packaging and development-level testing to realize instrumentation solutions that meet these critical and demanding needs.

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